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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.


Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.

Why to Publish with Medicon?

1. Medicon is an international scientific publisher which publishes articles on Multiple disciplines.
2. Publication certificate will be provided to author.
3. Rapid publication process.
4. Reasonable publication Fee. 
5. Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
6. High visibility of published work.
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8. Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Predictive Factors of Mortality of Stroke in the Neurology Department of Hujr of Befelatanana in Antananarivo

Fanomezantsoa Noëlla Ravelosaona, Parany Haja Rabearisoa, Zafinirina Andriatoavina Rakoto, Séraphin Espérant Andriamampilamina and Djacoba Alain Tehindrazanarivelo

Published: September 27, 2022

Introduction: Stroke is a major public health problem in the world. In Madagascar, mortality from strokes is still relevant. Evaluating predictors of mortality would allow better treatment.
Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study of the records of patients admitted to the neurology department during the period January 2015 to December 2019. There have been 1,565 cases of stroke.
Results: The death rate from stroke ranges from 6% to 11%. Demographic characteristics are not predictors of mortality. Clinical features; especially the onset of complications are the predictors of death in stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke was a poor prognosis. Hospital stays of less than 10 days have been associated with mortality in patients with stroke. The NIHSS score has been a good prognostic tool for any type of stroke. For ischemic stroke, an ASPECTS score ≤ 7 was associated with mortality. For hemorrhagic stroke, the ICH score allows a good evaluation of the prognosis of these strokes.
Conclusion: The establishment of a neurovascular unit in the University Hospital JR of Befelatanana would help better manage patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. National stroke surveys are needed to better identify national priorities.
Keywords: ASPECTS; ICH score; Mortality; Predictors; Stroke

Covid Pandemic: Mental Health study in School Children and related Educational Myths

Madhur Mrinal and PK Upadhyay

Published: September 27, 2022

Paper deals with mental health of Children during lockdown where we are sharing our study-first author’s work, a voluntary organization working in Delhi, on the mental health issues of the school children and field work with school children on mental health narratives in pandemic. It finally concludes in discussion on the myths of our education system, digital divide in gender, DGs and EWS and camp model approach.
Keywords: Covid-19; Mental Health; School Children and Educational system

Determinants of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children Aged 0-59 Months

Toralta Nodjitoloum Joséphine, Souam Nguele S, Djidita Hagre, Granga DD, Abdelsalam T and Brahim Boy O

Published: September 27, 2022

Introduction: Infant malnutrition is endemic in Chad. In 2018 in N’Djamena, the prevalence was 13.5%. This study aimed to identify factors influencing Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in children under 59 months admitted to two Medical Feeding Centre in N’Djamena.
Patients and method: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of the files of children aged 6 to 59 months admitted for severe acute malnutrition in two feeding centre in N’Djamena, from September 2019 to February 2020. The files were selected randomly, and the study sample size was calculated using the Schwarz formula. Descriptive and analytical analysis was done using Chi-2 and binary logistic regression; a P value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant.
Results: Age 0-24 months (p = 0.001), breastfeeding mode (p = 0.027), early diarrhoea (p = 0.040), age of weaning (p = 0.013) and diversification (p = 0.034), self-medication (p = 0.047), and use of traditional care (p = 0.020) were significantly associated with SAM. The mother’s age and education level (p = 0.029) are also factors in the occurrence of SAM. Environmental hygiene and especially hand washing before feeding the child (p = 0.007) were significant for the occurrence of SAM.
Conclusion: Factors related to the mother, the child and the environment interact closely to lead to SAM in the child. Only concrete and multidisciplinary actions can overcome this problem.
Keywords: Severe Acute Malnutrition; Infant; Medical Feeding Centre; N’Djamena

Monkeypox Outbreak in India

Safeena Beevi SS

Published: September 27, 2022

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral infection due to monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, known as the very significant orthopox viral infection after the small pox is eradicated. The two distinct genetic clades of the monkeypox virus are the central African (Congo Basin) clade and the West African clade. The 2022 monkeypox outbreak in India is caused by the West African clade of the monkeypox virus [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced it as a public health emergency on July 23 and it is clinically less severe than smallpox. The global cases of monkey pox reported in 2022 outbreak is 63,117 as on 14/09/2022 and in India 14 reported cases [2].

The study is an extract from the researcher’s PHD thesis titled, “Pedagogical Integration of Technology as an enhancement to teaching and learning in Gauteng Public Schools”. The study aimed to explore the degree of the ICT integration within Gauteng Public Schools, the challenges impeding the optimum utilisation of ICT towards curriculum delivery and enabling conditions for ICT rollout in education transformation. Therefore, the study’s objectives were to determine the degree to which individual qualities impact the educator’s preparedness in using ICT for teaching, to ascertain the magnitude preceding ICT skills and computer training affects educators’ preparedness within their teaching environment.

The study was hinged upon a pragmatist paradigm, using mixed methods approach, whereby a case study was chosen as a strategy. The theoretical notation for the study was an inductive simultaneous approach whereby the qualitative dimension was core and quantitate dimension was supplemental. Purposive sampling technique was applied to sample twelve (12) Heads of Departments (HODs) and five (5) senior officials from the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE). Both educators and HODs were selected from public schools in three Gauteng regions: Johannesburg, Tshwane, and Ekurhuleni. Furthermore, a stratified random sampling method was used to obtain feedback from two hundred and ten (210) educators, who were selected from the identified population.

The study findings showed that male educators had a higher and positive attitude towards ICT integration and utilisation in the classroom than their female counterparts. In addition, the study findings revealed that most of the professional development support from the department provided to educators mainly empowers them on how to best utilise information communication technology available, not how to effectively integrate the technology into the curriculum.

The results of this study confirmed that even though resources and training were provided by the GDE, educators were not sufficiently equipped to develop their own approaches that could embrace ICT into the learning process. In most cases, educators were not using technological tools to develop their lesson plans and curriculum delivery. A clear understanding of how educators integrate ICT in teaching is significant to develop and deliver effective educational opportunities to properly prepare learners for higher learning, work, and life in the 21st century.
Keywords: Curriculum Delivery; Educators’ perceptions; ICT Integration; Pedagogy; Self-efficacy

Identity Access Management in Metaverse

Manasi Chhibber, Sarthak Agarwal and Amit Dubey

Published: September 22, 2022

Metaverse is a virtual apace where people can enter and interact with other users in a computer-generated surroundings. It is an integrated system of 3-dimensional virtual worlds. These are preferably accessed via a VR headset. Users’ eye movements, their voice commands and feedback controllers are mainly used to navigate around the metaverse. In this way they are able to fully immerse themselves in the virtual world and simulate their presence. With the advent of this new technology, challenges are bound to occur. Most importantly challenges related to security of users need to be dealt with. Every person entering and interacting in the metaverse must be a verified user so that identity frauds do not happen, hence keeping the users safe from malicious attacks. To deal with this issue, we have come up with two features, first, an avatar facial tracking based and second, a chat based. By using NLP and Deep Learning, we were able to 73.77% uniquely identity a person in a WhatsApp chat group with other people. For the facial recognition-based security feature, we have just laid out our theoretical approach. In future, we’re planning to make use of other features as well such as speech pattern recognition, body positioning retrieval, retinal movement tracking, etc. for allowing only authorized users to enter and interact in the metaverse.
Keywords: metaverse; avatar security; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning

The World is Changing Fast: Can AI Help Meet the Challenges?

Ivanna Dronyuk

Published: September 22, 2022

About a quarter of a century ago, humanity crossed the millennium mark. Everyone was looking forward to drastic changes. And these changes did not take long; they are already walking across our planet. However, it turned out that it is not all that simple.
First, the changes are related to technology. The scientific discoveries of the previous century served as a theoretical basis for technological advances. A list of the most recent modern discoveries that provide a technological breakthrough for today: space exploration, the creation of computer machines, and the development of global networks. This is far from a complete list [1].

In this paper, a thermohydraulic characterisation of a reciprocating room temperature active magnetic regenerator, with gadolinium particles used as a magnetocaloric material and water used as a heat transfer fluid, was numerically carried out. A two-dimensional transient flow model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics software in order to determine the water flow distribution in two active magnetic regenerators of cross and parallel gadolinium particles distributions for different water inlet velocities of 0.06, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.12 m.s−1. The gadolinium particles have a radius of 1.5 mm and a distance from one another of 0.9 mm. Based on the simulations results of this model, a second two-dimensional transient coupled flow and heat transfer model was then developed using the same software in order to characterise the convective heat transfer in the active magnetic regenerator of cross gadolinium particles distribution for the same water inlet velocities.
Keywords: Magnetic refrigeration; active magnetic regenerator; magnetocaloric material; gadolinium; magnetocaloric effect; flow distribution; heat transfer; modelling

Experimental Study on Moisture Loss Mechanism in Apples Tissue

Georges El Achkar Bin Liu and Rachid Bennacer

Published: August 30, 2022

In this paper, the moisture loss mechanism in biological tissue of apples was experimentally investigated in order to understand this mechanism and hence to extend their shelf life. An image conversion procedure, based on the use of image processing and AlgoLab Photo Vector softwares, was developed in order to characterise physically the internal porous structure of apples from the core to the skin. Several geometrical and physical parameters of the restructured porous media (porosity, fractal dimension, tortuosity, capillary pressure, permeability) were determined, and a comparison between their trends was carried out and analysed. Besides, a moisture loss model was established and discussed.
Keywords: bioproduct; apple; biological tissue; porous media; dehydration; experimentation

Latest Research Roadmap of Approved Drugs & Vaccines for Covid-19 Recovery

Pallavi S Shelke, Prafulla P Adkar, Nikita S Kolte, Surekha N Shegar, Anirudha V Nilangekar, Swapnil B Gadekar, Anuradha M Patil and Komal L Bhosale

Published: August 30, 2022

     The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused and is still causing significant mortality and economic consequences all over the globe. Till date today, there are four U.S Food and Drug administration (FDA) approved vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Janssen and Novavax COVID-19 vaccines. Also, the antiviral drug remdesivir and two combinations of monoclonal antibody treatments are authorized for Emergency use (EUA) in certain patients. Furthermore, baricitinib- immune modulator was approved in Japan (April 23, 2021) for certain hospitalized adults with covid-19. Despite available vaccines and EUA, pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is still highly required. There are several ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of clinically available drugs in treating COVID-19. In this review, latest novel pharmacological agents for the possible treatment of COVID-19 will be discussed.
     COVID-19 vaccine is the most promising strategy to end the current pandemic in addition to anti- viral agents. Design of novel anti-viral agents which are specific for SARS-CoV-2 will provide more effective therapy for COVID-19 patients. Development of effective vaccines and anti-viral drugs both needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Before effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are available, current treatment options will come from repurposing drugs. Thus, in this review we aim to highlight potential therapeutic strategies from the viewpoints of clinicians based on updated clinical evidences, and provide a basis for future researches of effective antiviral therapies. In the future, the development of new drugs and vaccines relies on multidisciplinary cooperation among structural biologists, chemists, and medical doctors. A knowledge gap of pharmacology for COVID-19 is expected to be filled up.
Keywords: COVID-19; Medications; Clinical trials; Management; Prevention; Vaccines

Ten Actions for Africa to be ready for the Next Pandemic

Abdoulaye Bousso

Published: August 30, 2022

It is always said that our continent is never ready for public health events. We weren’t at the time of the last Ebola outbreak in West Africa [1], and we weren’t at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak as well [2]. Despite the events we have experienced, the means invested, we are in an endless restarting. However, we have an obligation to learn from this COVID-19 pandemic, in order to sustainably strengthen our health systems. It is certain that a next public health event will happen, the question is when? Would we be ready? To answer yes, each country will have to implement at least the following ten actions.

Quadcare Model for Healthcare Providers

Preston L Williams, Joanna P Williams and Bryce R Williams

Published: August 30, 2022

Raising the discussion to participate in the evolution of a healthcare system that reflects the complexity and diversity of the modern integrated healthcare system in alignment with the community is well-documented. However, in this precarious hierarchical environment, there are necessary areas for improvement with respect to progressing the medical professional and key stakeholders beyond a paternalistic or traditional-minded practice. Integral to a synergy that will fuel the U.S. and global healthcare markets, this article aims to raise awareness for the audience through evidence-based materials about a paradigm shift in the operative definition of healthcare providers (ie clinical doctors) that has evolved to embrace four instrumental degrees within their respective fields of expertise, the MD, DO, DMSc (PA), and DNP (NP). Essential systematic changes serve to create parity amongst the aforementioned healthcare providers to maximize workplace diversification, inclusion, collaborative care, and professional satisfaction. All of which may translate to improved team dynamics, offset social determinants of health, and ultimately provide greater access to innovative and affordable quality care.
Keywords: Quadcare Model; DMSc; DNP; DO; MD; social determinants of health; healthcare institutions; healthcare delivery; collaborative care; Optimal Team Practice (OTP); change management; burnout; shared decision-making; patient empowerment; healthcare management; intrapersonal functional diversity; professional parity

What we want to summarize here is a low permeability oil and gas field. After 50years of polishing, those revolutionary technologies branded with low permeability marks. In terms of its contribution, it is such a technical sequence from one row to six: first, oil and gas exploration technology that infinitely approximates the migration and accumulation law of Ordos hydrocarbon sources; The second is the brand-name, customized and service-oriented drilling fluid completion hydraulic fracturing technology; Third, natural fractures are not developed, and artificially created fracturing technology for low permeability oil and gas reservoirs; Fourth, the advanced water injection and pressure boosting development technology of ultra-low permeability oil fields, which is deficient in nature and then compensated by nature; Fifth, the large-scale cluster well technology that low-permeability oil and gas fields must be developed at low cost; The sixth is the horizontal well technology that allows the longest possible well section to lie flat in the oil and gas reservoir. It is these technologies that have exerted their effects on the low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in many changes in the low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs in line with people’s wishes. It is these gratifying changes that converge into a continuous flow of oil and gas in Changqing Oilfield.
Keywords: Low permeability features; Revolutionary technology; Fifty years; Changqing Oilfield

Why did this voice come so late for the sound of Kei Mitsui?’ There are some objective reasons for this. On the one hand, the 1858 drilling team that undertook the drilling of the Qingsan well and most of its parties were almost 40 years old from the Changqing Oilfield by the reorganization Years, so the people who know the glorious history of Keimitsui are only a very small minority within the scope of the Changqing Oilfield; On the other hand, the important person who came to Qingsanjing to witness the great achievements of Qingsanjing belonged to the old Red Army veteran revolutionary Wang Xing, who left the oil system after serving as the director of the Military Control Commission of the Ministry of Petroleum for a short time, although this person was a great hero with legendary experience and major contributions, when he was no longer in an important position in the petroleum system, who cared about the fact that he had made a trip from Beijing to the small place of Zhaogoumen in Huachi County, Gansu Province, for an oil well! Of course, Lao Geming quietly came and left quietly, unwilling to add a simple style of reception affairs to the local government, so that his trip to Huachi failed to leave a historical record in the local area, which was also a reason why Qingsanjing’s meritorious name did not jump up at that time. Then, in 1989, the publication of the Changqing Oilfield Chronicle, The Well was mistakenly identified as a well of discovery, and the superposition effect of the historical phenomenon made the name of The Famous Well covered in layer after layer of smoke and dust. Without the eternal perseverance of sitting on the bench for ten years cold and not writing half a sentence in an article, it is very difficult to sort out a relatively clear and clear context for the historical status and significance of the merits of The Founding Father of Kei Mitsui. Penetrating the time and space distance of half a century, it is a major issue to sort out the historical status and significance of Kei Mitsui’s meritorious service. It is necessary to comb through the memories of the parties concerned, to sort them out in reliable historical documents, and to comb through the small place of Zhaogou Gate in Huachi County, the birthplace of Qingsanjing. Who would have thought that this sorting process would take a full twelve years of precious time. What can be comforted is that this mission has finally been completed now.
Keywords: history of new Chinese petroleum entrepreneurship; History of oil exploration in Ordos; Entrepreneurial history of Changqing Oilfield; Merits of the Founding Fathers; Keimai

Pore Structure and Acoustic Characteristics of Shaximiao Formation in Sichuan Basin Citation: Zhao

Zhao Dan, Zhang Qingxiu, Guo Jingshu, Li Gang and Zeng Shuti

Published: August 19, 2022

With the deepening of exploration and development, the natural gas development in Sichuan Basin has entered the stage of tight gas exploitation. There are significant differences between tight gas and conventional natural gas resources, which are embodied in more complex pore structure and lithology. These differences make it difficult to predict the “dessert” development area of tight rocks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pore structure characteristics, petrophysical characteristics and formation fluid of tight sandstones. In this paper, through CT scanning and thin section identification, the characteristics of rock micro pore structure in Qiulin area are found, and the petrophysical characteristics of tight rock reservoirs are found through P-S wave experiments. The research shows that the pores of Shaximiao Formation in Qiulin area are large, with pore diameter distribution of 0.05~0.5mm and the pores are relatively developed, with an average porosity of more than 10%. The study of rock physical properties shows that dense rock Poisson is higher than conventional carbonate rock and shale, and has the characteristics of low acoustic wave velocity and low Young’s modulus.
Keywords: Tight sandstone; geological exploration; pore structure; acoustic characteristics; P-S wave experiment

Hysteresis Loop Measurement for Steel Sheet under PWM Excitation Condition

Xinyang Gao, Nana Duan and Shuhong Wang

Published: August 19, 2022

This article adopts a method of measuring the hysteresis loop of oriented silicon steel sheet under the excitation of pulse width modulation (PWM) signal. A measurement platform was built on the basis of the traditional Epstein frame method. According to international standards, the length of the equivalent magnetic circuit of the Epstein frame was calculated, and the harmonic control method was used to achieve the measurement of the hysteresis loop of the oriented silicon steel sheet under PWM excitation. Starting from the traditional sinusoidal excitation, this paper measures the variation of the hysteresis loop of the silicon steel sheet under different frequency excitation. On this basis, the waveform control and PWM signal output programming were carried out through the host computer, and the influence of high-order harmonics of different frequencies on the magnetic properties of the oriented silicon steel sheet under PWM excitation was compared. Provide theoretical basis for the design and research of transformer laminated core.
Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation; High-order Harmonics; Hysteresis Loop

Student’s experiences on the use of online collaborative technology continues to attract attention of researchers in education and social sciences. Of particular interest is the reliance on technological and digital platforms, using web-based strategies during the outbreak of COVID-19 in institutions of learning. This study used an unlinked, anonymous survey to explicate experiences of students on the use of online technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. Consenting participants constituted a study population that was made up of first year accounting students in a public university in South Africa, drawing a sample of 190 from a population of 371. Using a theory of connectivism, the study found that students were eager and confident that collaborative technology could lead them to pass their examinations even if face-to-face intervention was missing. Collaborative technology consisting of tools such as WhatsApp, Blackboard and Zoom made it easy for them to relate with instructors and faculty who were making efforts to deliver content in a simplified manner. The study further concluded that efforts have to be made to study the benefits of collaborative technology both to learners and faculty at institutions of higher learning. 
Keywords: Blended-learning; E-learning; Online learning; Technology; Universities

Knowledge can be transmitted, facilitated, developed, and produced in a variety of ways through education. As a matter of fact, universities, in particular, are defined in terms of knowledge generation. We shouldn’t be surprised, then, that discussions about decolonizing (Western) education have expanded to encompass provincial zing (Western) epistemology, given the close ties between education and educational institutions and epistemology. This presents a danger as epistemological pathways inform thinking partners and behavioural dynamics of societies. Deconstructive debate that seeks to discuss educational decoloniality from the Global South cannot articulate that with exclusion of southern epistemological position towards reality with the lens of its inhabitants. This is what confronts the post-doctoral scholar of the Global Centre for Academic Research and South Valley University, as independent entities within the Global South. This narrative reflection provides a baseline for a cogent discourse in favour of deconstruction of southern epistemological trajectory in education and social perspectives.
Keywords: Doctoral education; Decoloniality; Social Discourse; southern Epistemology

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus), belongs to the Cyperaceae family and is also found to be a perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant. It is widely distributed in the temperate zones within south Europe and also grows naturally in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. It is known in Nigeria as “Aya” in Hausa, “Ofio” in Yoruba and “AkiHausa” in Igbo. The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of tigernut on aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver of adult wistar rats. The objectives of the study were to induce liver damage in wistar rats using aluminium chloride, and to determine whether tiger nut has ameliorative effect on the histopathological change induced by aluminium chloride on liver of wistar rat. Twenty five wistar rats weighing between 80g and 170g were randomly grouped into five rats each (A, B, C, D and E). After two weeks of acclimatization, group A was administered with normal saline, group B was administered with 500 mg/kg bwt of aluminum chloride, group C was administered with 1250 mg/kg bwt of cyperus esculentus, group D was administered with 500mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 2500mg/kg of cyperus esculentus, group E was administered with 500 mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 3750mg/kg of cyperus esculentus.

After two weeks of administration three rats from each group were sacrificed humanely and the liver of the rats were harvested for histological studies. The results showed that oral administration of aluminum chloride caused histopathological changes manifested with congested central vein, inflammation and fibrosis on the liver tissue, the group treated with cyperus esculentus showed normal histology of the liver, and the group treated with aluminum chloride and cyperus esculentus showed decrease in histopathological changes and partially restored live rtissue. In conclusion aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver tissues of adult wistar rats was ameliorated using cyperus esculentus with restoration of the degenerative changes which were time-dependent and dose-dependent respectively.
Keywords: Ameliorative; Cyperus esculentus; histopathological; liver; Wistar rat

Phytoremediation potentials of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Sunflower (Helianthus amarus) and Fluted pumpkin (Telifaria occidentallis) on spent engine oil polluted texturally contrasting soils was evaluated in the glasshouse belonging to the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Three texturally contrasting soils: Sandy loam (SL), Loamy sand (LS) and Sandy clay loam (SCL) were potted with a polythene bag and polluted with 10% w/w (122ml/kg), 20% w/w (245ml/kg) and 0% w/w (0ml/kg) of spent engine oil. The experiment was a 3x3x3 factorial replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD). The soil was thoroughly mixed with spent engine oil and allowed to stay for three weeks to allow for proper absorption of the engine oil. Thereafter, air dried crushed and sieved poultry manure was applied to each polythene bag at a rate of 40 t/ha. The spent engine oil- organic manure mixture was watered to field capacity 3 times per week for two weeks after which the crops were sown. Soil samples were collected and analyzed at the end of the study which lasted for 12 weeks, to determine the total hydrocarbon in the soil after planting. The data on soil parameters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT. The results showed that the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was higher in the 20% polluted soil as it increases with the level of pollution and was highest in the soil in which pumpkin was planted and least in the soil in which sunflower was planted. The study concluded that Sunflower has better phytoremediation potential for spent engine oil-polluted soils than Sorghum and Fluted pumpkin.
Keywords: phytoremediation; soil type; spent engine oil; sorghum; sunflower; pumpkin

The Reasons why the Omicron Virus continues to Pandemic

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 26, 2022

We introduce recent virus infectious mechanisms from the viewpoint of amino acids. We focus on the chemical formula and atomic bonding strength involving amino acids resulting in the current pandemic. Furthermore, we refer to how to protect a virus with the water with theoretical ideas and evidences. After they apply higher pressurization to ordinary tap water, the water only possesses the pico-sized particle, which emits far-infrared and terahertz electromagnetic wave besides chemical reduction to viruses and diseases.

Folk Dentists Voicing their Plight-An Ethnographic Exploration

Madhur Mrinal, Sarbjeet Khurana, Mehak Segan, Rajeev Janardan and PK Upadhyay

Published: July 20, 2022

An ethnographic study of folk dentists was conducted in Delhi. Ten case studies of folk dentists and their patients were analysed for various domains of content analysis (CA). Data were collected through mixed method of data collection with some basic research questions guide for the folk dentists and patients during the COVID-19 partial lockdown period in Delhi. The CA for primary cases, secondary cases and for patients was analysed for various domains. Results reveal various aspects of their practices and issues on roadside assets in clinic, health and hygiene, family traditions, pride in work, income/economics, duration of their practices and uncertainties. Similarly, patients were analysed for their views on cheap services, health and hygiene, easily approachable folk experiences and quality of services. The researchers illuminated the policy issues of folk or traditional dentists practicing in a metropolitan city and their patients’ perspectives for their dental public health concerns and have made some recommendations to their salient voice.
Keywords: Dental Public Health; Ethnography; Folk Dentistry; Roadside Dentists

Awareness and Perceptions of College Students on Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Programme (TISHIP)

Olatayo Bamidele Oriolowo, Antakil Asarya and Ganiyu Oladimeji Olarongbe

Published: July 20, 2022

Background: The level of satisfaction of students under the Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Program (TISHIP) is a measure of the success of such scheme. However, valid assessment of the success of TISHIP by students requires good knowledge of its operational guidelines. This study accessed the level of awareness and perceptions of TISHIP students’ enrollees of the Federal Colleges of Education in the North Central geopolitical zone of Nigeria.
Methods: The study was a descriptive cross sectional investigation in which 188 selected participants completed self-administered semi-structured questionnaires, Student TISHIP Awareness, Perception and Evaluation Questionnaire (STAPEQ). Data collated was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of chi-square and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were raised and formulated respectively to guide to the study.
Results: The results show that an average of 75.55% of the students was fully aware of TISHIP objectives, 62.74% were aware of the benefits, 41.0% were aware of their responsibility. Many of them (69.2%) were not aware of the procedures to seek for redress when dissatisfied with services they received from their healthcare providers. 73.4% believed their healthcare providers operate in clean environment, 70.21% felt that doctors and nurses were cordial and friendly, 62.7% claimed to have experienced long waiting period before doctors/nurses consultations. 63.83% of the respondents agreed to be satisfied with the quality of service rendered by their healthcare providers. There were no significant differences in level of awareness and perceptions of the two groups of students on TISHIP operation and service delivery respectively.
Conclusion: The study therefore recommended more enlightenment of students on TISHIP operational guidelines in order minimize the level of their misgivings about the scheme. Moreover, government should employ more medical personnel especially doctors in order to solve the challenge of long waiting period before medical consultations.
Keywords: TISHIP; Healthcare providers; Awareness; Perception; Satisfaction; College

In accessibility and increase in price of commercial concentrates as a supplement for ruminants laid a way to look for other options in hand. The aim of current study was to identify the optimum level supplementing cassava leaf meal (CLM) as a replacement for protein on growth performance and economic efficiency of local goats. Twenty four intact yearling bucks with an average initial body weight of 13.92 ± 1.03 kg were purchased from Balela local market and assigned to one of the four treatment feeds in a completely randomized block design as: T1= Grazing + 100gm WB + 150gm CLM, T2 = Grazing + 100g WB + 200g CLM, T4= Grazing + 100g WB + 250g CLM (T4= Grazing + 300g Concentrate mix). All animals were allowed access to water ad libitum and the experiment was undertaken for 90 days live weight gain, DM intake, FCR and cost-benefit analysis were parameters studied during experiment. The chemical composition of feed samples was conducted immediately before commence of actual experiment showed that cassava leaf meal has high protein content which is above the minimum requirement level for optimal rumen microbial activity (22.94%) and low fibres content which are readily digestible (30.37%) indicating that it can be potentially used as supplemental feed for ruminants in areas where other sources are not available and/or are expensive. Supplemental feeding of 250gm of air dried CLM and 100gm of WB in current experiment positively influenced the economic efficiency and growth performance of animals by providing higher feed intake and greater weight gain as compared to T1 group and T2. The results from daily live weight gain were 63.1g, 69.9g, 93.22 and 103.78g for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Bucks in T3 and T4 (positive control) gained better than (93.22 and 103.78g/day) bucks in T1 & T2. Whereas the results from DMI were, 3.3kg, 3.0kg, 3.5kg and 3.7kg for T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively. Even though goats in T4 performed relatively better than all other treatment groups, supplementation of air CLM (T3) was economically feasible, profitable. Therefore, supplementing goats those which graze on natural pasture with 250g of dried CLM and 100gm of WB will be feasible for optimum production. Further study on maximum inclusion level of dried cassava leaf meal has to be studied in grazing goats.
Keywords: Cassava leaf; weight gain; cost-benefit analysis; concentrate-mix

Seed multiplication in sugarcane through conventional technique is low (1:10) that’s why there is need to increase multiplication ratio through different multiplication technique used single bud, seed setts and top portion i.e. meristmatic region of cane stalk. The notified and released sugarcane varieties those bearing high yield and higher juice quality and also it showed stability and tolerance abilities against biotic and biotic factors under changing climatic scenario. The trueness to variety depends upon its good germination percentage, high genetic & physical purity percentage, vigour and its appearance treated as standard quality seed followed the Seed acted as foundation of Agriculture Technology and modernized much of farming’s day-to-day operations also helpful to steady supply of high yielder quality seed, to get high yield. Good quality seed can give up to 15% higher yield in most of the crop. A reviewed upon the advancements of different seed multiplication techniques of sugarcane viz, single bud plantlets (SBP), spaced transplanting (STP), poly bag seedling transplanting, bud chip, sablang or sprouting, rayungan, distance planting, tjeblock, advance vertical seed multiplication, tissue culture and popular conventional methods was done, among them single bud plantlets found the best one. Keeping this above said points in view it is subsidised by the Govt. of Bihar for popularity of SBP among the farmers. Seed standard of sugarcane either in conventional method or tissue culture technique should be maintained so that farmers will get maximum production with quality seed standard.
Keywords: Sugarcane; setts; single bud plantlets; tissue culture; seed standard

The Effects of Glutamine in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Caroline Anastácio Freitas, Larícia Cináriados Santos Sousa, Gabriela Borges Mota Furlan and Luciana Pietro

Published: July 21, 2022

This systematic review study aimed to analyze the effects of glutamine on irritable bowel syndrome, demonstrating the adequate dose of glutamine for the treatment of IBS and identifying which clinical symptoms are improved with glutamine supplementation that include a relationship with the restoration of the intestinal wall, increase of immune cells, among other effects. Forth research, a systematic literature review of articles published between 2011 and 2021 was carried out. The research demonstrated that glutamine supplementation helps to protect the intestinal mucosa, increasing the capacity of immune cells, decreasing the translocation of bacteria and toxins after intestinal injury, preventing infections and inflammation, improving the symptoms of individuals with IBS. It is concluded that glutamine supplementation enhances the synthesis of this amino acid, which is extremely important in situations of metabolic stress and to exercise activities related to intestinal villi, consequently improving nutrient absorption.
Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Treatment; Glutamine; Immune cells

Aesthetic Outcome of Feldspathic Veneers: A Clinical Report

Marwa Amara, Riahi Zeineb, Trifa Mahdi, Ommezine Moncef, Noira Zohra, Hadyaoui Dalenda, Harzallah Belhsan and Cherif Mounir

Published: July 07, 2022

Ceramic veneers are well known as a conservative treatment option for anterior teeth presenting wear, discolorations or shape anomalies.
The high esthetic outcome offered by the ceramic laminate veneers are the most important reasons of their indications. In recent years, an increased number of ceramic materials have become available for veneer’s fabrication, with the outcomes of each material supported by literature of varying degrees of scientific rigor.
The reproduction of a final color that matches the patient’s teeth shade is one of the biggest challenges met with ceramic veneers, since the color of the ceramic restorations depends on several factors such as the basic color of the used ceramic, the thickness, teeth’s color and the cement color. The feldspathic ceramics offer the highest esthetic value compared to all the other systems.
Feldspathic porcelain veneers have a remarkable 10-year survival rate of up to 95 percent after being bonded to enamel.
However, a major concern with the feldspathic ceramics was their low mechanical resistance.
Nowadays, the feldspathic blocks for CAD CAM systems allows matching the optical outcome of the original feldspathic veneers and the strength offered by the CAD CAM ceramic restorations.
In this case report article, we will show a step-by-step procedure of CAD/CAM feldspathic veneers fabrication for an esthetic rehabilitation of dento dental disharmony.
Keywords: Aesthetic; laminate veneers; feldspathic ceramic; macrodontia; CAD-CAM

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Dealing with Anterior Diastema and Peg Laterals

Marwa Amara, Belkhel Nour Houda, Riahi Zeineb, Ommezine Moncef, Nouira Zohra, Hadyaoui Dalanda, Harzallah Belhsan and Cherif Mounir

Published: July 07, 2022

Smile rehabilitation of dental microdontia is a real therapeutic dare. Alterations in size have esthetic, functional, and psycho-social repercussions for patients.
Often associated with diastema and other dental anomalies, patients usually visit seeking an esthetic smile rehabilitation.
Multiple options are now available when it comes to treating encountered problems related to smile refinement. Orthodontic, periodontic, restorative, and prosthodontic, or a combination of all these procedures may be indicated to fulfill the patient’s esthetic and functional demands.
This article presents a combination of an orthodontic and prosthodontic procedure as well as the conditioning of the gingival tissue to treat anterior diastema associated with the presence of peg laterals.

Periodontal Treatment Improves Clinical Manifestations of Gingival Lichen Planus: A Case Report with 11-Years of Follow-up

Marta Jasminie da Silva Brigida, Talita Maximo Carreira Ribeiro, Endrigo Sperto Rodrigues dos Santos, Estevam Rubens Utumi and Irineu Gregnanin Pedron

Published: July 07, 2022

Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous lesion, relatively frequent in oral cavity. Clinically, lichen planus can present in typical or atypical forms. The typical forms are generally milder and asymptomatic, whereas the atypical ones cause painful symptoms, which in turn make dental procedures and oral hygiene more difficult, favouring the development of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this article is to present a case of lichen planus that affected the buccal keratinized gingiva bilaterally on mandibular premolars and molars, simultaneously with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment was performed, by sessions of scaling and root planing and oral hygiene instruction. Remission of the gingival lesions was observed, as well as control of the periodontal disease. The patient has been followed up for 11 years.
Keywords: Lichen planus; Periodontal Treatment; Gingiva; Oral Diagnosis; Oral Pathology; Periodontics

Weed Community Composition, Structure and their Quantitative Evaluation under Tropical Conditions in Garhwal Region

Tana Dipung, Himshikha Gusain, Jitendra Singh Butola and Sneha Dobhal

Published: July 02, 2022

An inclusive knowledge of weed biology is essential for identification and management in order to develop both economically and environmentally acceptable weed management systems. A comprehensive documentation of weed communities is essentially required for inventorization, taxonomic identification and effective management. Present experiment was conducted on composition and their vegetation analysis of weed species through collection of specimens from destructive sample plots in HNB Garhwal University, Chaurus Campus, Uttarakhand. A total of 26 weed species belonging to 24 genera and 18 families were recorded from the 13 plots. Total Number of Individuals (TNI) was observed highest in Murraya koenigii (221±7.10) and least for Ziziphus Mauritiana (13±0.48). Important Value Index (IVI) was highest for Murraya koenigii (137.44) and Cannabis sativa (66.73), while the lowest was recorded for Ziziphus mauritiana (22.33) and Cissampelo spereira (2.41). Oxalis corniculata (69.23) showed the highest frequency, while Cannabis sativa showed both density=13.09 and abundance=21.27 to be the highest. Both Cissampelo spereira and Solanum nigrum species recorded lowest frequency, density and abundance was with value F=7.69 each. On basis of IVI, Murrayakoinigii and Cannabis sativa species marked the highest level of domination in the observation plots. The Asteraceae (4) followed by Amaranthaceae (3) and Malvaceae (3) were observed to be dominant family at the sites. The family such as Apocynaceae, Canabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Boraginaceae showed least number of species. The range of abundance-frequency ratio was between 0.02 – 0.35, which indicate regular and random distribution pattern, signifying a suitable management system for weed regime in the area.
Keywords: Community; Dominance; Diversity; Species; Weeds

Why Chlorophyll Exists in a Plant from Viewpoints of Water

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 02, 2022

We learn any plant possesses chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Here, we introduce oxygenic photosynthetic organisms that use water as an electron donor resulting in reduction of carbon dioxide. SIGN water contains the detailed information transferring it to another substance and changing its properties with the information. The water reduces the material and has characteristics to change the nucleus. The property is based on pico sized water and leads to the development of germination and growth of a plant. Furthermore, we find the generation of chlorophyll based on the nuclear change starting from water absorbance in roots to leaves.
Keywords: chlorophyll; SIGN water; pico-sized particle; reduction; nuclear change

Assessment of Genetic Divergence and Correlation Analysis of Sugarcane Clones (Saccharum spp. L.) in North-Western Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

Devendra Kumar, LR Meena, Nirmal, Lalit K Meena, Raghavendra KJ and Arpan Bhowmik

Published: July 02, 2022

Nine early maturing sugarcane clones and their 12 morpho-physiological characters were studied in 2015-16 and 2016-17 crop seasons under inorganic environment to assess their genetic distance and characters association. The results of the experiment revealed that variety CoPk 05191 had greater genetic distance from CoS03251 (239.401), CoLk011201 (227.923) and UP 05125 (201.355), medium genetic distance was between Co098014 and Co 011201 (224. 618), Co098014 and UP05125 (179.927), and Co098014 and CoS03251 (178.029). The hybridization between the aforesaid combinations of clones can produce heterotic and transgressive genotypes with higher cane and sugar yield. The cane yield showed strong positive and highly significant correlation with cane height (r= 0.948**), single cane weight (r=0.817**), number of millable cane (r=0.748**), and green top yield (r=0.653**). Being highly correlated with cane yield, the characters like cane height, cane weight, NMC and green top weight need special focus while making selection for higher cane and sugar yield.
Keywords: Cluster analysis; Correlation; Dendrogram; genetic diversity; Sugarcane

ReSmart-15: A Soft Information Gain Based Questionnaire for Early Dementia Detection

Hyeseong Park, Myung Won Raymond Jung, Ji-Hye Kim and Uran Oh

Published: July 01, 2022

As the number of people affected by dementia increases, there is a need for diagnosing potential symptoms of early dementia, and questionnaires such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used for early dementia detection. To build a more effective questionnaire, we propose ReSmart-15, a dementia detection questionnaire that includes daily behavior-based questions in five categories (i.e., attention, spatial ability, spatiotemporal ability, memory, and thinking ability). To evaluate the effectiveness of each question in detecting early dementia, information gain can be used to rank their contributions. However, the current information gain-based method requires hard classification results such as whether the patient had been diagnosed with early dementia or not. In this paper, we propose a “soft information gain” based ranking system where each patient is diagnosed with an early dementia probability (from 0 to 1), not with a hard decision of early dementia (0 or 1). We conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of ReSmart-15 compared to MMSE and found that the top 2 questions were from ReSmart-15, and 60 percent of the ReSmart-15 questions were in the top 10. 
Keywords: Early demantia; Questionnaire; Soft information gain

Patient Voice in Clinical Trial Outcome Assessments

Rahul Dhanda and Gurdyal Kalsi

Published: July 01, 2022

     Since the early 90s, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating clinical outcome assessment (COA) in clinical trials to measure how a patient feels or functions when describing the treatment benefit (both positive or negative) of an intervention. In 2009, the FDA issued the Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) Guidance which lays out the criteria for establishing the ‘fit for purpose’ of a COA, if that COA is to be used along the regulatory pathway (i.e., support approval or labeling). The principles elucidated in the PRO Guidance establish the gold standard for incorporating a COA, and provides the basis for the reliability, validity and interpretability of the COA data collected from a clinical trial on a registration path.

     However, not all COAs are used along the regulatory pathway. It could be that researchers or academics are interested in only publishing the results of a study in which COAs have been included. In this case less rigor could be used to establish the ‘fit for purpose’ of the endpoint used in the trial.