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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.

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Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.
 

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1. Medicon is an international scientific publisher which publishes articles on Multiple disciplines.
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8. Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Anesthesia Management in a Patient with a History of multidrug Anaphylaxis

Deniz Turan and Serdar Epozdemir

Published: October 8, 2021

Abstract
Perioperative anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic allergic reaction. Allergic reactions occurring during anesthesia were found to be between 1/6000-1/20000 in retrospective studies. The mortality rate is between 3-5% [1]. The causes of perioperative anaphylaxis are neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, latex, hypnotic induction agents, chlorhexidine, opioids, and colloids. Risk factors for perioperative anaphylaxis include female gender, mast cell disorders, allergic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever), drug allergy, and atopy [2-6]. We aimed to present the anesthetic management in our case who had to have knee replacement surgery, had co-morbidities and had a history of anaphylaxis against multiple drugs.

Keywords: Anaphylaxis; Knee Replacement; Co-morbidities; Anesthesia Management

Abstract
The objective of this project was to build a system software that could assist any first responder irrespective of their background in first-aid. It employed a combination of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to dial for emergency medical assistance and make a diagnosis of the treatment needed. An Image Recognition (IR) service was trained using IBM Watson to assess the casualty’s primary condition. Training phrases were fed into Dialogflow to construct a voice and text-based conversational interface for Google Assistant’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) to give a secondary diagnosis. Vuforia’s Augmented Reality (AR) engine in Unity was then enlisted via Target Detection to display a virtual assistant applying first-aid on the casualty. The components were amalgamated using the AI’s autonomous control over the IR and AR applications to create the end-to-end system software. Lastly, XCode, an app-building engine, developed the components into prototype mobile applications. Future prototyping could assist first responders during an actual emergency and complement the Singapore Civil Defence Force’s efforts of promoting high
standards of first-aid.

Keywords: Internet of Things; Augmented Reality; Artificial Intelligence; Deep machine learning; First-aid

Ganesh Immersion Impact on Environment

Vijaya Lakshmi

Published: October 01, 2021

Ganesh idol immersions are done all over the country now. Last year due to pandemic, government did not allow any public idols. But in 2021, permissions are granted and public gathering is immense in all the pandals. Here we are concerned about two issues; one is using artificial colours to the POP idols and crowd pulling without following Covid rules. People stopped following precautions to contain the spread of virus. Public is found not wearing masks, not maintaining social distance and of course no provision of sanitization in many Ganesh Pandals. Even if sanitizer is provided, people have become careless by not using it. We all have to be cautious during the festival which is not taken seriously now. However one good sign is increase in awareness about mud idols. Compared to previous years, this year making and selling of mud idols is increased by 15%. Earlier only small idols used to be made in mud but now from one foot to 10 feet, idols are made in mud and some are coloured with natural colours to protect the environment from water pollution.

Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC), will be advantageous in the field of Agriculture

Vivek Chamoli, Rishi Prakash, Anurag Vidyarthi

Published: October 01, 2021

Many natural calamities have affected our country in recent years, such as the draught in Maharashtra and Gujarat, flood in Kerala, cyclone (fani) in Orissa, flash flood in Uttarakhand and several other part of the country. Continues monitoring of soil moisture can predict this situation well in advance to take corrective measure. Reliable, durable, and automated systems for measuring soil moisture content have long been recognized as being highly helpful, if not necessary, in hydrologic, environmental, and agricultural applications. The amount of moisture in the soil determines how well the region’s soil supports plants and crops. Plants may rapidly absorb soil water if the moisture content of the soil is optimal for plant growth. Plants do not have access to all of the water trapped in the soil. Even after rain, there’s still a thin layer of water on the earth. When salts are dissolved in soil water, they form the soil solution, which is vital as a medium for adding organic matter to crop growth. Fig 1. shows the importance of soil moisture in agriculture.

Past Is the Key to the Present

Rahul Verma

Published: October 01, 2021

The title of my write up may surprise you a bit. But the fact is that the present day geo-environmental scenario is totally a repercussion of the events that took place in the past. I will site two examples only, considering the limit of the write up.

The first example is the flooding in the river Brahmaputra during monsoon and post monsoon times. The mighty Brahmaputra creates havoc in Arunachal and Assam. The present-day floods are due to the plate collision phenomena that took place since Miocene times. The Indian plate is still subducting under the Eurasian plate and we all know that Himalaya is still rising. This event gave rise to the Geosynclinal set up in the region. The prominent lithology on either side of Brahmaputra is consisting of sedimentary rocks of Tertiary Era. The mighty Brahmaputra passes through these sedimentary terrains. These sedimentary rocks viz. Sandstone, Shale and Siltstones are very prone to erosion. A huge amount of eroded sediments is carried through the tributaries of Brahmaputra and ultimately, they are deposited in the riverbeds. The situation is analogues to the story of the thirsty crow’’ who was putting pebbles in the pot to raise the level of water. The same situation is practically found in the Brahmaputra riverbed, that gets over flooded due to the excess sediment load in the basin. Needless to say, that if we have to control the floods in Assam valley, we must take measures to check erosion in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries by vigorous plantation, check dams etc.

Abstract
Impact of nosocomial infections ranges from increased length of hospital stay, emotional stress, disability, death of the patients as well as increased hospital cost for the patients and providers. Studies in India have reported nosocomial infection rates from 8% to 58 %.
The observations of staff working in SKIMS Central Sterile Supply Department of various cadres revealed that 50 % of the staff were in the age group 20-40 and 50 % of staff was of age group > 40 years of age, and maximum 92% of staff are Male. Education Qualification wise it was found that most of 50% staff is 12th pass. The results of the study indicate that higher percentage of motivation and job satisfaction among the staff working in Central Sterile Supply Department are attributable to working hours, in-service training, reward/appreciation, and resting time during work and satisfied with supervisory and subordinate staff.

Keywords: Central sterile Supplies; Sterilisation; Hospital Infections; Staff satisfaction

Study of Utilisation of CT Scan Machine at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Waseem Ahmed Sheikh, Shaista Ganai, Shadab Maqsood, Mohd Sarwar Mir

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
In today’s health care environment, the equipment purchase must be cost justified. As India is a developing country with constrained resources and hi-tech hospitals, CTs are most cost effective than other image modalities on image quality. Establishment and maintenance of CAT scan unit in a hospital is expensive and every effort must be made for optimum utilization of this equipment in appropriate manner. Utilization of imaging equipment is an important parameter for planning of services as these equipment’s are costly and underutilization can lead to massive losses due to depreciation and other reasons. In our study, utilization coefficient of CT machine was found to 60% which shows that our machine is being properly utililised as per set norms.

Keywords: Utilization; CT scan; Efficiency

Abstract
Hospital acquired infection or “nosocomial infection” adversely affects both patients and hospitals. Impact of nosocomial infections ranges from increased length of hospital stay, emotional stress, disability, death of the patients as well as increased hospital cost for the patients and providers. Studies in India have reported nosocomial infection rates from 8% to 58%. The ultimate outcome of the services rendered in a hospital is judged by the level to which it satisfies its user. In our study 100 personnel working in various department of the hospital directly linked with the patient care were randomly selected and studied. The category of staff studied included doctors, nurses and other staff. In the study It was found that on an average 70 % staff was satisfied with the services provided by Central Sterile Supplies Department of SKIMS.

Keywords: Central sterile Supplies; Sterilisation; Hospital Infections

Using Kitchen Resources and Home Remedies to Cure common Cold

Saba Khan, Sarah Malik

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
For boosting the immune system, to promote optimum health & to reduce the complications or risks of the disease, kitchens ingredients play a significant role. The objective of this study was to find out the popular home remedies for common cold and to modify them for better results. Survey and interview method helped in collecting the field information from the sample of hundred respondents. The most popular remedies were identified and modified by addition of any three more ingredients from the kitchen shelf. The modified recipes were subjected on the sample of twenty-five adults suffering with common cold. Their experiences showed reduced recovery time and better response in improving their general health condition.

Keywords: Common cold; Home remedies; Kitchen ingredients

Abstract
In the recent times, the area of agriculture one of most essential research and also there has been an increasing demand in future based on weather conditions and agriculture labour demands. In this paper discuss what are the reasons for increasing the growth using weather conditions and labour demands. Numerical illustrations also provide to prove the various government reports.

Abstract
Indigenous knowledge is considered as one of the most effective strategies in response to climate change issues for planning and policy at both local and national levels in Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Community based adaptation is able to reduce the vulnerability as well as improve the resilience of the local people to climatic variability and change. This research was carried out to explore the role and contribution of opportunities and challenges farmer’s experiences using indigenous knowledge to adapt to
floods in sustainable development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Keywords: Climate change; Indigenous knowledge; Flood; Adaptation

Save of Environment and living organisms with weak energy of the water

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa, Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
It is well known that water can’t be lack of plants as well as human body and water is 70% occupies the oceans on the earth. There is little basic research for water although many a study has been reported for a macroscopic viewpoint of water, H2O molecule itself, such as a solvent. Furthermore, water must be essential to agriculture including soil and bacteria in it. The research of agriculture has not focused on the water, although they pay much attention to soil, a fertilizer and efficient harvest. Here we report the water a more than unusual which is completely different from our daily life water. Here, we present the small size water like an elementary particle that can be fabricated with higher pressure of more than 100MPa. We indirectly confirmed the smallness of it with H-NMR and FTIR methods. As the result, the water can be easily absorbed into a living organism including a human body due to its size leading to the growth and respiration of a plant. Furthermore, we report that the water can function to change the nucleus resulting in the radioactive reduction.

Keywords: Small size of water; 100MPa; Better absorption; Water information; Radiation reduction

Orthopedic Device and Data Visualization: A Way to Optimize the Therapeutic Process

Gabriele Pontillo, Roberta Angari

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
Medical design may intervene to improve, prolong and save lives. Many health critical problems can be addressed thanks to the power of design, which solutions, developed in academic and business settings, can answer in an innovative way to the needs of patients. It is in this context that is located the ongoing research presented, which is based on the integration between parametric design and data visualization, whose convergence leads to the realisation of medical devices customized on specific morphologies and needs of users and, as well, - thanks to the integration of IoT - capable to record and return data related to the course of the therapeutic advancements, made readable for both patients and doctors. As highlighted by the most recent scientific literature, the development of technological medical devices, able to reduce steps and simplify the doctor/patient relationship, is becoming an important field of research, most of all if we consider the condition of endemic fragility that characterises the contemporary society. In this perspective, the aim of the paper is to introduce the concept and design of orthopedic devices, through the description of the methodology and approaches applied and of the protocol outlined during the research.

Keywords: Medical Design; Parametric Design; Information Design; E-health; Personalized medicine

Evaluation of Smile Components in Males of Skeletal Class III compared to Skeletal Class I

Abdallah S Nouh, HM Abdel Majeed, Essam Mohamed Nassef Selim

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
Objective: Smile plays a vital role in facial appearance. The current study was performed to evaluate the smile parameter variations between Class I and Class III male subjects aiming to obtain a full understanding to smile features serving in diagnosis and treatment planning for highest patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 30 skeletal Class III and Class I males. Two frontal digital photographs were taken for each subject, one at rest and the other in the posed smile position. Photographs were uploaded on Photoshop software for standardization and then uploaded on the Digital Smile Design software (DSD) where the actual incisogingival height of the central incisor was used for automatic calibration.
Results: At rest, there was no significant difference for all soft tissue measurements of Class I and Class III males, while on smiling, Class III males tended to have wider smile widths, less incisor display, wider smile width and a higher percentage of non-consonant and flat smile arcs than normal Class I subjects.
Conclusions: The maxillary incisor display for Class I was found to be significantly greater than that for Class III. The smile width and smile height for Class III was found to be significantly greater than that of Class I.

Keywords: Class III males; Esthetics; Malocclusion; Smile

BrainGate - A Computer Innovation for Patients with Paralysis

Senthilkumar T, Varuna Padmajan

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
Brain gate is an electrode chip that’s implemented in the cortex of the brain. It is a system developed by cyberkinetics, a biotech company in the year 2003 in connection with neuroscience department at Brown University. It helps to exchange the electrical signals between brain and the electrical gadgets. The principle behind this brain implant system is with normal brain functions, brain signals are been generated, but they can’t be sent to arms, hands or legs, these signals are understood and translated to cursor movements, which helps the individual to regulate the computer by his or her thoughts. Special software carries all the signaling processes.

Keywords: Brain gate; Electoral signals; Cursor movements

Abstract
A study to assess the knowledge, opinion of faculty and post graduate students of nursing regarding translational Research in nursing in Tirupathi was conducted on 50 nursing faculty and 50 nursing post graduate students in Tirupathi, with the objectives to find out 1. Knowledge regarding translational Research 2. Opinion regarding translational research. Method and Material It was an incidental study conducted by the investigator when nearly 500 nursing personnel came to participate in the national workshop organised by Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visva vidyalayam in Tirupathi. The study comprised of survey questionnaire of multiple choice type to elicit the information and an opinion check list. The sample of study is selected randomly from 2 groups comprised of faculty and post graduate students. The data was collected before starting of the Workshop when participants assembled for registration. Results showed that the knowledge score’s levels of nursing faculty was almost the same as that of post graduate nursing students. However, both groups showed slightly different responses on opinionnaire regarding translational research. Conclusion Translational research in nursing is not a myth and distance dream but can be a realty.

Keywords: Nursing; Evidence Based Practice; Nursing Education; Nursing Research; Translational Research; Knowledge and Opinion

Pharmacological Treatments for COVID-19

Vikrant Gupta

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019 in China and cause an acute respiratory disease. Since then, no specific therapy or vaccine is being available for the treatment or prevention of the disease. Teams of scientists around the world are racing to develop a treatment to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive clinical trial data are required to identify safe and effective treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of antiviral drugs, their pharmacological features, and their outcome against the disease based on the available data. We have discussed their mechanism of action, doses, and adverse effects in detail. In addition, a close review of vaccines that are in the developmental state has also been discussed.

Abstract
The experimental chemistry competency is considered to be the core and specific competency that needs to be formed and developed for students in chemistry education. In recent times, there have been some educators and teachers interested in researching these capacity development measures for students. This article researches the principle, suggests the process of virtual experimental construction of oxygen - sulfur chemistry 10, and applied in teaching to students at the high school in Tay Ho-Hanoi for the school year 2019-2020. The initial experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of using virtual chemical experiments to develop chemistry experimental competency for students in teaching chemistry.

Keywords: Experimental chemistry competency; Virtual chemistry experiments; Students

Overview of Analyses of Purified Pharmaceutical water through Proficiency-testing Schemes Results

Caterina Mazzoni, Anne Tirard, Abdelkader Boubetra

Published: October 01, 2021

Abstract
Water is one of the major components used by the pharmaceutical industry. It may be present as an excipient or used for reconstitution of products, during synthesis, during production of the finished product or as a cleaning agent. Different grades of water quality are required depending on the different pharmaceutical uses. Chemical, physical and microbiological quality controls are essential to verify that the produced water meets the regulations in force. The methods that must be applied for quality control of water for pharmaceutical purpose are described in the international Pharmacopeia. However, laboratories have few means at their disposal to check obtained results and to prove their competence to drug regulatory agencies and customers associations. As Certified Reference Materials (CRM), Proficiency Testing Schemes (PTS) is an excellent tool to objectively check laboratories performances. Moreover, data collected in PTS represent a snapshot of the state of the art of tested analytical methods.

Keywords: Proficiency-testing schemes; Purified pharmaceutical water; Endotoxins, IN total organic carbon; Total viable aerobic germs; Quality control; Laboratory performance

Abstract
Aims: The study was conducted on hospitalized patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and undergoing treatment for it, to evaluate the impact of clinical counseling by pharmacists in changing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) outcomes.
Methods and Material: The patients were regularly counseled by written (distributing patient information leaflets) and oral (directly by the pharmacist) communication for nine months. Pharmaceutical care, comprising of patient education, was provided to 125 patients and KAP outcomes were evaluated. A set of 25 questions were asked to 107 patients, which included baseline and follow-up for the patients. In this study, the medications, disease, risk factors and lifestyle modifications of the patients were also considered.
Results: 107 patients had completed the study. In the study, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the patients increase. Patient counseling showed a positive impact on the patients. KAP outcome was found to get improved significantly after the counseling.
Conclusions: Patient counseling by the clinical pharmacist improved the patient knowledge towards the disease. Moreover, a pharmacist can encourage the patient, so that they can play a pivotal role in succumbing disease.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, KAP outcome, pharmaceutical care, clinical counseling, and hospital care.

Phytochemical Screening and Invitroacaricidal Activity of three Herbal Extracts aginst Cattle Tick Boophilus Decoloratus

Habtamu Demisse, Sisayeweldgebrial

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 14-21.

Abstract
     Boophilus decoloratus tick is an economically important ecto parasite of the cattle and that generates major problem for livestock producers. Commonly, these ecto parasite are controlled by commercial acaricides produced by manufacturers however, increase in resistance, environmental toxicity, scarcity and high cost led to the evaluation of other alternative tick controlling option. This expermintalstudy was designed to determine the acaricidal efficacy of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica herbal extracts against the common cattle tick Boophilusdecolratous. Qualitative phytochemical screening was used to detect secondary metabolites contained in the selected herbs. The percentage of adult mortality and percentage inhibition of oviposition were studied at different experimental concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100mg/ml to determine the efficacy of leaf extracts. 3% of Dimethyl sulfoxide was also used as a negative control. The study determined the presence of secondary metabolites such asalkaloids, tannins, glycosides in the herbal leaf extracts, which are able to cause neuro toxicity in the tick. Inhibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica of the treated ticks were 78.68, 86.84 and 52.63%, respectively. At the highest concentration, the adult tick mortality was 90, 100 and 80% for Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica, respectively. The results of the current study pointed the potential acaricidal effect of selected medicinal plants with varying potency. Therefore, further study should be done in vitro and in vivo assays to use studied plants as acaricides.

Key words: Azadirachtaindica; Boophilusdecoloratus; Daturastramonium; Nicotianglauca

A Research on Comparative Study of Floating Tablets of Theophylline Utilizing Different Techniques

Sujan Neupane, Milan Subedi, Shona Kadel, Sheeba FR

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 02-13.

Abstract
     The primary intention of the present work is to fabricate the floating tablets of theophylline employing various methodologies of formulation and to execute the comparative study between the formulations developed by different techniques. Theophylline when used in a lower concentration act as an anti-inflammatory drug, when developed as a floating tablet it reduces the frequency of drug administration as it remains buoyant in the gastric contents and release the drug at a pre-determined rate. Different methods are utilized for the formulation of the floating tablets with an intention to prolong gastric residence time and reduction in inconstancy of the drug. Theophylline, a xanthine derivative bronchodilator is used as a model drug and three different techniques were accustomed viz, direct compression effervescent technique, non-aqueous wet granulation technique and solvent evaporation technique. Sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid were used as gas generating agent whereas HPMC 15cps and sodium alginate as polymers. Twelve formulations were fabricated using three techniques, i.e. four formulations of each technique. All the prepared formulations were evaluated as prescribed by the Pharmacopoeial monograph for tablets. The optimized formulation DF2 showed a drug release of 70.225±0.888 at the end of 8 hours with a floating lag time of 08.4 sec and remains buoyant for more than 8 hours. Among the three different techniques, direct compression effervescence technique can be successfully employed for the development of floating tablets of Theophylline. The obtained data were subjected only for descriptive analysis.

Keywords: Theophylline; Direct compression effervescent technique; Non-aqueous wet granulation technique; Solvent evaporation technique

Solving Global Problems using Neural Network

Nabeel Khan

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(1): 35-40

Human Brain is made up of interconnected cells called neurons. The connection between these neurons is called neural network.Thoughts are created by interconnected brain cells called neural network. It is the result of hidden data and input data. If suffering, then it is because there is something wrong in your hidden data. Take good input data that will override the hidden data to create good thoughts. Artificial neural network is the pattern to work like the human neural network.

A Study to Assess the Impact of Online Learning Among School Children in Kerala

Sreeraj R N, Soorya Joy, Lijisha P V, Senthilkumar T

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 29-34

Abstract
Background:
Due to the ongoing pandemic of Covid-19 almost all the sectors in the world left the traditional ways behind and the educational sector was no exception. Nowadays the school children are able to pursue their education remotely inside their most familiar physical setup, their home, with the help of information technology. This study aimed to find out the impact of this ‘online learning’ among school children. Methods: A quantitative approach which adopted a descriptive survey design was used for this study among 30 school going children from selected schools in Kerala. These 06-18 years aged children were selected using convenient sampling technique and data collection was done through a structure checklist. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using Minitab Version 16. Results: The impact of online learning was graded in to positive and negative for analysis and interpretation of the data. The findings showed that majority of the school children (63.33%) were positive impacted from online learning and there was no association found between online learning and demographic variables at 5% confidence level (p<0.05). Discussion: Even though the online learning had a positive impact on school children, to get most out of the online learning, the teachers must have to adjust the materials and methods used for remote teaching to make them more interesting for the learners.

Optimization of Pb (II) biosorption by Harvested Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) using response Surface Analysis

Amin Keyvan Zeraatkar, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Vahid Razaviarani, Ahmad Farhad Talebi

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(1): 32-43

Abstract
     Biosorption has been defined as affinity characteristics of certain biomolecules present in dead/live biomass to passively bind selected ions from aqueous solutions. In this study, the bioremoval of Pb (II) was studied using dead biomass of green microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Important individual and combined factors affecting the sorption process, such as initial concentration of Pb (II) (100-500 mgL-1), pH (2.5-6.5), biomass concentration (0.1-0.5 gL-1) of C. vulgaris and contact time (20-120 min) were investigated to achieve the maximum removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions. The parameters were optimized by the experimental design concept using central composite design (CCD). The statistical parameters of the derived model were R2 = 87.91% and F value = 8.31. The response surface diagrams were plotted based on the defined model to show the effects of the variables on the Pb(II) bioremoval efficiency. A quadratic model was proposed by CCD which agreed well with the experimental data (R2 = 87.91%). Also, the model was able to predict optimal conditions of pH= 2.5, C0 = 100.0 mgL-1, Cbiomass = 0.4 gL-1 and t = 120.0 min for the target bioremoval of Pb (II) (100%).

Keywords: Biosorption; Microalgae; Lead; Optimization, Response Surface Analysis

An Analytical Study of Mobile Agro Advisories among the Farmers

Prabha D, Arunachalam R

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(1): 26-31

Abstract
     The study was conducted in Annur and Kinathukadavu blocks of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 200 respondents were selected, it has been decided to select two per cent of the population as sample size. Variables such as social participation, contact with extension agency, mass media exposure, innovativeness, decision making ability, risk orientation, scientific orientation and profit motivation were found to be in medium level. Three-fourth of the respondents (76.50%) had not undergone any computer training. Little more than two-third of the respondents (67.50%) were using ordinary mobiles, more than fifty per cent of the respondents (57.50%) were using 2G network facilitating mobiles and two-third of the respondents (66.50%) had no internet access in their mobiles.

Keywords: Mobile Phone; Network; Advisory; Innovative; Communication; Agriculture

Abstract
      This study explored the relationship of external market orientation, internal market orientation, service climate and employees’ market-orientated behavior in the Food & Beverage industries in Taiwan, China, and the United States. This is one of few studies that bring together the related market orientation constructs with international context. The result shows that employees’ market-oriented behaviors will be influenced positively by market-oriented culture, employee perceived service climate, as well as internal market orientation. This study identified the role of internal market orientation and service climate in forming employees’ market-oriented behavior. Drawing on data from a sample of 625 frontline employees working in catering services in Taiwan, China, and the US. The study also examined the moderating effects of power distance on cultural roots. Hofstede’s cultural element of power distance was tested and proven to moderate the above-mentioned relationships. Regional differences among the results were also discussed. This study uses second-order confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the relationships. The current study also tested measurement invariance to ensure the constructs that were measured were conceptually equivalent among the three cultural groups.

Keywords: Internal market orientation; Service climate; Power distance; Market orientation; Mediated moderation

Abstract
      In a study looking at potential impact to respiratory health of quarry workers exposed to airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in Queensland, Australia, respirable dust exposure sampling was undertaken using the method specified in AS 2985-2009. Analysis of the collected samples for alpha quartz was carried out using infrared spectroscopy. Lung function tests for the exposed workers at each quarry were conducted using an Easyone® spirometer. The aim of this study was to determine whether increased RCS exposure is associated with a reduction in lung function. Personal RCS exposures were pooled into similar exposure groups (SEGs), minimum variance unbiased estimates (MVUE), were plotted against the forced expiratory volumes in one second (FEV1) % of predicted for corresponding SEGs. Non-linear correlations were observed including natural log and polynomial function. Estimated (full shift) exposures pooled for each Similar Exposure Group (SEG) correlated with lung function measured as FEV1 % of predicted (p<0.05) as confirmed by the Kolmogorov goodness of fit test. Furthermore a trend test using SAS 9.4 resulted in p = 0.0013. A major finding for those workers exposed to RCS at 0.1 mg/m3 was loss of lung function greater than 20%. The increased loss of lung function was positively correlated with jobs associated with increased RCS exposure. When similar exposure groups were combined into three RCS exposure ranges categorised as high (≥ 0.09 - ≤ 0.20 mg/m3), medium (≥ 0.04 - ≤ 0.08 mg/m3) and low (< 0.04 mg/m3), analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that the loss of lung function below the lower limit of normal (LLN) at 0.1mg/m3 TWA-8hrs, is significant (p < 0.05). 

      A major finding from this study predicts that an abnormal loss of lung function may occur even when workers are exposed to RCS where the occupational exposure limit (TWA) is 0.1 mg/m3 or greater which is the case in many jurisdictions.
Keywords: Respirable Crystalline Silica; lung function; quarries

Abstract
     We performed in 1975, the first heterotransplantation of invertebrate A.O in nude mouse, then a double heterotransplantation of human tumor and axial organ next to this last one, always in nude mouse: The human tumor was rejected in 50% of observed cases. Some years later, we found that A.O cells exerted an induced and spontaneous cytotoxicity against SP2 and MBL2 mouse tumoral cells. Recently, we discovered a sea star Igkappa gene with immune properties. This gene was inserted in a CMV (cytomegalovirus) and finally in a plasmid called « young » plasmid.

     The induced « young » protein exerted a spontaneous cytotoxicity against osteosarcom cells (U2oS cells) against A-375 melanome cells and Hela cells.

A Descriptive Explorative study on Sleep Disturbances during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women, in a Selected Hospital at Puducherry

Jayasankari S, Leena L Raju, Kiruba Prasanna, Jayapriya

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 21-25

Abstract
Background: Pregnancy involves many maternal physiological and psychological changes both of which has implications on sleep. During the first trimester, sleep is disturbed by the hormonal changes and in the last trimester the grown up fetus and the anxiety regarding delivery disturbs the sleep. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the Sleep Disturbances during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women, in a tertiary Hospital at Puducherry. Methods: 238 pregnant women were interviewed using modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to evaluate the Disturbances in sleep during Pregnancy. Results: The findings of the study showed that that almost all the subjects (87.3%) had poor sleep in their pregnancy. Only 12.7% had good sleep quality. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Score was 7.60 (SD - 1.83), which shows poor sleep during pregnancy. No significant relationship was identified between sleep quality with selected socio demographic and clinical variables. Conclusion: Sufficient good sleep during pregnancy is important to improve the pregnancy outcomes. It can be conluded that there is a great need to sensitize antenatal women on this issues appropriately.

Key words: sleep quality; pregnant women

Assessment of Knowledge regarding Human Breast Milk Bank among the Nursing Officers in JIPMER Puducherry

Safeena Beevi S S, Adline Shanu, Akila, Ananda Geethan, Anjaly Suryan, Asuthosh Kumar, Aswathy, Bavithra, Bharathi, Bharath Kumar

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 13-20

Abstract
     World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund in 1980 has stated that if the baby does not get his/her own mother’s milk, the best food for that baby is Human breast milk from another lactating mother. Donor milk has a broad range of therapeutic uses. Common reasons for prescribing donor milk are prematurity, allergies, feeding formula intolerance, immunologic deficiencies, etc. Breastfeeding is not recommended for mothers who have specific health problems. In the absence of the infant’s mother’s milk, donor milk offers the benefits of human milk for the infant, including optimal nutrition, easy digestibility, and immunological protection against many organisms. Human milk also contains growth factors that can protect immature tissue, promote maturation, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, and promote the healing of tissue damaged by infection.

     A human breast milk bank is a service that collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription. Human milk is donated by nursing mothers who are biologically not related to the recipient infant. The optimum nutrition for newborn is breastfeeding, if possible for the first year.

     Human milk is recognized for its numerous benefits, including tolerance to allergens, providing passive immunization, improving lipid profile, and controlling blood pressure. In studies conducted in the neonatal unit, infants fed human breast milk had fewer severe infections, less necrotizing enterocolitis, and less colonization by pathogenic organisms. The majority of mothers are encouraged to breastfeed their babies. However, breastfeeding arises when the baby is sick or admitted to the hospital, particularly in premature infants. Also, the mothers may be unable to provide an entire volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional behaviors to breastfeeding. So, the pasteurized donor milk from a healthy mother should be the first consideration for supplementation. In such cases, the role of breast milk banks becomes crucial as these are the place where the donor milk is stored and is made available for use in vulnerable populations. India is a developing country where neonatal mortality is  very alarming. Breast milk banks are essential for the control of cases of neonatal mortality and malnutrition.

Methodology-This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of nursing officers regarding the human breast milk banks and to identify service-related factors associated with the level of knowledge on human breast milk banks among nursing officers. One hundred seventy-six participants were selected for the studies who fulfil the inclusion criteria of the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge level among the nursing officers. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used in this study.

Results-A total of 176 nursing officers were analyzed. Findings revealed that most nursing officers had inadequate knowledge (93.18%) regarding the human breast milk bank.

Conclusion-Most of the nursing officers are having inadequate knowledge regarding the breast milk bank. The study also reveals the clinical experience; the area of posting has a significant correlation in the knowledge level of the participants so that the institute can plan for in-service education programs to update the staff’s knowledge.

Keywords: Human breast milk bank; Preterm neonates; Nursing officers; Nutrition